“data layer”が動的に生成されるとはどういう意味ですか? ~ GA4 無料コミュニティで頂いたご質問より ~

データ レイヤー(data layer)

確かに、「data layerが動的に生成される」という表現は初心者にとって理解しづらい表現かもしれません。ここでは、data layerが動的に生成される意味と、決済完了を例に説明します。

data layerは、Webページ上のJavaScriptオブジェクトであり、イベントやトランザクションなどの情報を含んでいます。data layerが「動的に生成される」ということは、Webページがユーザーのアクションに応じて、その都度変化することを意味します。つまり、data layerに含まれる情報は、ユーザーがサイト上で行ったアクションに基づいて、実行時にJavaScriptコードによって動的に生成されます。

例えば、決済完了を例にとると、ユーザーが商品を購入したときに、data layerには以下のような情報が含まれることになります。

dataLayer.push({ ecommerce: null });  // Clear the previous ecommerce object.
dataLayer.push({
  event: "purchase",
  ecommerce: {
      transaction_id: "T12345",
      affiliation: "Online Store",
      value: "59.89",
      tax: "4.90",
      shipping: "5.99",
      currency: "EUR",
      coupon: "SUMMER_SALE",
      items: [{
        item_name: "Triblend Android T-Shirt",
        item_id: "12345",
        price: "15.25",
        item_brand: "Google",
        item_category: "Apparel",
        item_variant: "Gray",
        quantity: 1
      }, {
        item_name: "Donut Friday Scented T-Shirt",
        item_id: "67890",
        price: 33.75,
        item_brand: "Google",
        item_category: "Apparel",
        item_variant: "Black",
        quantity: 1
      }]
  }
});

この例では、data layerの中に「purchase」というイベント名を含め、購入情報を追加しています。ここで、「purchase」はGA4で使用するトリガーを指定するために必要な情報です。また、「transaction_id」や「value」などの情報は、GA4でEコマースのデータを正確に収集するために必要な情報です。これらの情報は、ユーザーが購入ボタンをクリックしたときにJavaScriptによって生成され、data layerに自動的に追加されます

つまり、data layerが動的に生成されるということは、ユーザーのアクションに応じてdata layerの情報が変化することを意味します。決済完了の場合、購入情報をJavaScriptで生成し、data layerに追加することで、GA4で正確なEコマースのデータを収集することができます。

なお、このような仕組みをウェブに実装するためには、ウェブ開発の知識とサーバーへのアクセス権が必要となります。普段、解析業務のみをなさっておられる方の場合は、エンジニアの方にご相談いただく必要があります。

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